The United Nations (UN) held its first Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS I) in , which resulted in a Convention. The final conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, in , resulted in the Law of the Sea Convention (LOSC). United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). (Montego Bay, 10 December ). PREAMBLE. PART I. INTRODUCTION. Article 1. Use of terms. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Done at: Montego Bay. Date enacted: In force:
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In unclos 1982 law of the sea original form this regime was unacceptable to developed countries, principally because of the degree of regulation involved, and was subsequently modified extensively by a supplementary treaty to meet their concerns.
Any commercial exploration or mining of the seabed is carried out by private or state concerns regulated and licensed by the ISA, though thus far only exploration has been carried out. If or when commercial mining begins, a global mining enterprise would be established and afforded sites equal in size or value to those mined by private or state companies.
Fees and royalties from private and state mining concerns and any profits made by the global unclos 1982 law of the sea would be distributed to developing countries.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
Private mining companies are encouraged to sell their technology and technical expertise to the global enterprise and to developing countries.
In conformity with this Part, States bordering straits may designate sea lanes and prescribe traffic separation schemes for navigation in straits where necessary to promote the safe passage of ships.
Such States may, when circumstances require, and after giving due publicity thereto, substitute other sea lanes or traffic separation schemes for any sea lanes or traffic separation schemes previously designated or prescribed by them.
Such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes shall conform to generally accepted international regulations.
Before designating or substituting sea lanes or prescribing or substituting traffic separation schemes, States bordering straits shall refer proposals to the competent international organization with a view to their adoption. The organization may adopt only such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes as may be agreed with the States bordering the straits, after which the Unclos 1982 law of the sea may designate, prescribe or substitute them.
In respect of a strait where sea lanes or traffic separation schemes through the waters of two or more States bordering the strait are being proposed, the States concerned shall cooperate in formulating proposals in consultation with the competent international organization.
Unclos 1982 law of the sea bordering straits shall clearly indicate all sea lanes and traffic separation schemes designated or prescribed by them on charts to which due publicity shall be given.
Ships in transit passage shall respect applicable sea lanes and traffic separation schemes established in accordance with this article. Article 42 Laws and regulations of States bordering straits relating to transit passage 1.
Subject to the unclos 1982 law of the sea of this section, States bordering straits may adopt laws and regulations relating to transit passage through straits, in respect of all or any of the following: Such laws and regulations shall not discriminate in form or in unclos 1982 law of the sea among foreign ships or in their application have the practical effect of denying, hampering or impairing the right of transit passage as defined in this section.
States bordering straits shall give due publicity to all such laws and regulations. Foreign ships exercising the right of transit passage shall comply with such laws and regulations. The flag State of a ship or the State of registry of an aircraft entitled to sovereign immunity which acts in a manner contrary to such laws and regulations or other provisions of this Part shall bear international responsibility for any loss or damage which results to States bordering straits.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III) | Environment & Society Portal
Article 43 Navigational and safety aids and other improvements and the prevention, reduction and control of pollution User States and States bordering a strait should by agreement cooperate: Article 44 Duties of States bordering straits States bordering straits shall not hamper transit passage and shall give appropriate publicity to any danger to navigation or overflight within or over the strait of which they have knowledge.
Contributed by Katelyn Young. Common heritage of mankind Unclos 1982 law of the sea Legal status of the Area and its resources Article General conduct of States in relation to the Area Article unclos 1982 law of the sea Responsibility to ensure compliance and liability for damage Article Benefit of mankind Article Use of the Area exclusively for peaceful purposes Article Rights and legitimate interests of coastal States Article Marine scientific research Article Transfer of technology Article